Caidagram: Visualising Geographically Annotated Internet Measurements

With measurement networks rapidly evolving up to hundreds of nodes (see RIPE Atlas as a prominent recent example), it becomes more and more challenging to extract useful visualisations from tons of collected data. At the same time, geographical information related to Internet measurements (either known or inferred with state-of-the-art techniques) can be exploited to build tools based on geography as a common knowledge base.

We wanted to develop a tool to visualise different classes of geographically annotated Internet data, e.g., topology, address allocation, DNS and economical data. In cooperation with The Cooperative Association of for Internet Data Analysis CAIDA, we developed a new interactive tool — Caidagram — derived from a decades-old visualisation technique called a cartogram. A cartogram is a map whose geometry is distorted to convey new information. A classic example depicts the United States with geographic distance distorted as a function of the population, coloured by the results of the 2004 presidential elections.

Each Caidagram extends the geographic mapping metaphor to other variables, while attempting to maximise intuitiveness and readability. We used Caidagrams to create interactive animations illustrating data trends over time. We show two examples of how a Caidagram can provide insight into real Internet data.

Methodology and Results

In the first example, we look at round trip times (RTT) between different end points, including one-to-many scenarios where we depict RTTs from different locations to one single endpoint. The common endpoint is normally placed in the centre of concentric circles that represent increasing distances.

In our example, the centre represents K-root (including all anycast instances) and the concentric circles represent RTT values. Countries are placed within the concentric circle that corresponds with the average RTT value of that country. This value was determined by combining the RTT values of all test traffic measurement boxes in that country as measured with the RIPE NCC DNS Monitoring service DNSMON. The Test Traffic Measurements network TTM is a network of measurement devices deployed by the RIPE NCC in various locations all over the world.

In Figure 1, you can see a frame from an animation showing round trip times to the K root server. The countries circling around the center, are those in which we placed more than one RIPE NCC TTM monitoring box: USA, The Netherlands, Italy, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, UK, Germany, Luxembourg, Estonia, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, Czech Republic, Israel, Cyprus. To increase readability, countries on the same continent are shown in the same colour.

In order to keep latency to a minimum, there are K-root instances on most continents and often more than one. However, sometimes a TTM box queries a root server instance that is on a different continent. This will increase the RTT value and places the country further away from the centre of the image as is the case for the US and Australia in our example.

Figure 1: Caidagram showing RTT values to K-root using DNSMON (Click to Enlarge)

The second example uses a more traditional cartogram technique to compare quantitative per-country Internet statistics, such as the number of Internet addressing resources in a country. The image below distorts the shape of each country, by either inflating or deflating its boundaries, depending on the number of Autonomous Systems (ASes) assigned to organisations in that country. At the same time, the colour indicates what percentage of these ASes are IPv6 enabled which means, the AS announces one or more IPv6 prefixes (red means no IPv6 enabled ASes and green means all ASes are IPv6 enabled).

The US is very inflated because of the many AS numbers assigned. However, you can also see that only around 10% of these ASes are IPv6 enabled. On the other hand, some European countries, most visibly The Netherlands, are shown in light green, which means almost 50% of the ASes are IPv6 enabled. South America and Africa are very small in this image, because not many AS numbers are assigned in these regions. The underlying data for this image is taken from (see also Networks with IPv6 over Time)

Figure 2: Caidagram showing IPv6 enabled ASes (Click to Enlarge)

Claudio Squarcella presented Caidagram at RIPE 61 in Rome. The tool is implemented with AJAX for compatibility with most modern web browsers, and uses the Google Web Toolkit and Raphaël, a Javascript library for vector graphics. You can also view a demo version of the tool or look at the source code. Please also see the article contributed by Claudio Squarcella on RIPE Labs ‘Caidagram :Visualising Geographically Annotated Internet Measurements‘.

Try Caidagram now!

(Please note that this is work in progress and will be improved over time.)

Written by Mirjam Kuehne

A Politically Incorrect Guide to IPv6

Every packet of data sent over the Internet is sent from one IP address to another. The IP addresses in the Internet serve somewhat the same function as phone numbers in the US phone system, fixed length numeric identifiers where the first part tells what network the address is on. Since the dawn of the Internet in the early 1980s, the IP addresses in use have been IPv4, 32 bit addresses which means there are about 4 billion of them. Unless you’ve been living under a rock, you’ve doubtless seen reports that the supply of IPv4 addresses is running out. Earlier this month IANA, the master allocation authority, handed out the last so-called /8, a large chunk of 16 million addresses, to one of the regional address registries, and sometime months or perhaps a few years after that, the registries will hand out the last pieces of their chunks. Then what?

The conventional wisdom is that everyone needs to support IPv6, a mostly compatible upgrade to IPv4 with much larger addresses, by the time the v4 space runs out. But I’m not so sure, particularly for e-mail.

There’s two unanswered questions here. One is is how hard it will be for new or expanding networks to get IPv4 address space. The other is how important IPv6 addresses will be to be able to reach the rest of the net. The conventional answers are very hard and very important, but I think the real answers to both, for the next several years, at least, is not very. Below is my three-part post where I opine about getting IPv4 address space, addressing and reachability.

A politically incorrect guide to IPv6, Part I

A politically incorrect guide to IPv6, Part II

A politically incorrect guide to IPv6, Part III

Written by John Levine, Author, Consultant & Speaker

When will Ars Technica add IPv6 to its website?

Ars Technica has posted an excellent article on their reasons for waiting to deploy IPv6 on their web properties. For those of you facing a similar decision, it’s a good opportunity to compare your thoughts with theirs. From reading the article, their main issues centers around the lack of IPv6 support in phpBB.

The 6 biggest misconceptions about IPv6

Debunking myths that keep CIOs from adopting next-gen Internet addressing scheme.

For 15 years, Internet engineers and policymakers have been publicizing the need to upgrade the ‘Net’s current addressing scheme — known as IPv4 — to handle the network-of-network’s explosive growth. Yet many U.S. CIOs and CTOs continue to harbor misinformation that they use to justify why they are not adopting the next-generation IPv6 standard.

This issue is significant because the Internet is running out of IPv4 addresses. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses and can support 4.3 billion devices connected directly to the Internet. The non-compatible replacement protocol, IPv6, uses 128-bit addresses and supports a virtually unlimited number of devices: 2 to the 128th power.

More from Network World…

ROBOBAK Announces Support for IPv6

ROBOBAK, a complete cloud based data protection solution for the Remote Office/Branch Office (ROBO) backup, announced today that ROBOBAK V10 fully supports IPv6 technology.
Complete info at Benzinga and PR Web.

World IPv6 Day Update

On June 8 the websites listed here will offer their content over IPv6.

The goal of World IPv6 Day is to motivate organizations across the industry – Internet service providers, hardware makers, operating system vendors and web companies – to prepare their services for IPv6 to ensure a successful transition as IPv4 addresses run out.

The following websites have joined the (growing) list of company’s that will participate in the World IPv6 day:

  • US Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Rosslyn Analytics
  • Appalachian Wireless
  • OfficeScape
  • Sliqua Enterprise Hosting